Control flow

If

(if test then else?)

A control flow structure. First evaluates test. If test evaluates to true, only the then form is evaluated and the result is returned. If test evaluates to false only the else form is evaluated and the result is returned. If no else form is given, nil will be returned.

The test evaluates to false if its value is false or equal to nil. Every other value evaluates to true. In sense of PHP this means (test != null && test !== false).

(if true 10) # evaluates to 10
(if false 10) # evaluates to nil
(if true (print 1) (print 2)) # prints 1 but not 2
(if 0 (print 1) (print 2)) # prints 2
(if nil (print 1) (print 2)) # prints 2
(if @[] (print 1) (print 2)) # prints 2

Case

(case test & pairs)

Evaluates the test expression. Then iterates over each pair. If the result of the test expression matches the first value of the pair, the second expression of the pair is evaluated and returned. If no match is found, returns nil.

(case (+ 7 5)
  3 :small
  12 :big) # Evaluates to :big

(case (+ 7 5)
  3 :small
  15 :big) # Evaluates to nil

(case (+ 7 5)) # Evalutes to nil

Cond

(cond & pairs)

Iterates over each pair. If the first expression of the pair evaluates to logical true, the second expression of the pair is evaluated and returned. If no match is found, returns nil.

(cond
  (neg? 5) :negative
  (pos? 5) :positive)  # Evaluates to :positive

(cond
  (neg? 5) :negative
  (neg? 3) :negative) # Evaluates to nil

(cond) # Evaluates to nil

Loop

(loop [bindings*] expr*)

Creates a new lexical context with variables defined in bindings and defines a recursion point at the top of the loop.

(recur expr*)

Evaluates the expressions in order and rebinds them to the recursion point. A recursion point can be either a fn or a loop. The recur expressions must match the arity of the recursion point exactly.

Internally recur is implemented as a PHP while loop and therefore prevents the Maximum function nesting level errors.

(loop [sum 0
       cnt 10]
  (if (= cnt 0)
    sum
    (recur (+ cnt sum) (dec cnt))))

(fn [sum 0 cnt 10]
  (if (= cnt 0)
    sum
    (recur (+ cnt sum) (dec cnt))))

Foreach

(foreach [value valueExpr] expr*)
(foreach [key value valueExpr] expr*)

The foreach special form can be used to iterate over all kind of PHP datastructures. The return value of foreach is always nil. The loop special form should be preferred of the foreach special form whenever possible.

(foreach [v [1 2 3]]
  (print v)) # prints 1, 2 and 3

(foreach [k v #{"a" 1 "b" 2}]
  (print k)
  (print v)) # prints "a", 1, "b" and 2

For

A more powerful loop functionality is provided by the for loop. The for loop is a elegant way to define and create arrays based on existing collections. It combines the functionality of foreach, let and if in one call.

(for head body+)

The head of the loop is a tuple that contains a sequence of bindings and modifiers. A binding is a sequence of three values binding :verb expr. Where binding is a binding as in let and :verb is one of the following keywords:

After each loop binding additional modifiers can be applied. Modifiers have the form :modifier argument. The following modifiers are supported:

(for [x :range [0 3]] x) # Evaluates to @[1 2 3]
(for [x :range [3 0 -1]] x) # Evaluates to @[3 2 1]

(for [x :in [1 2 3]] (inc x)) # Evaluates to @[2 3 4]
(for [x :in @{:a 1 :b 2 :c 3}] x) # Evaluates to @[1 2 3]

(for [x :keys @[1 2 3]] x) # Evaluates to @[0 1 2]
(for [x :keys @{:a 1 :b 2 :c 3}] x) # Evaluates to @[:a :b :c]

(for [[k v] :pairs @{:a 1 :b 2 :c 3}] [v k]) # Evaluates to @[[1 :a] [2 :b] [3 :c]]
(for [[k v] :pairs @[1 2 3]] [k v]) # Evaluates to @[[0 1] [1 2] [2 3]]

(for [x :in [2 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 6] :while (even? x)] x) # Evalutes to @[2 2 2]
(for [x :in [2 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 6] :when (even? x)] x) # Evalutaes to @[2 2 2 4 6 6]

(for [x :in [1 2 3] :let [y (inc x)]] [x y]) # Evaluates to @[[1 2] [2 3] [3 4]]

(for [x :range [0 4] y :range [0 x]] [x y]) # Evaluates to @[[1 0] [2 0] [2 1] [3 0] [3 1] [3 2]]

Exceptions

(throw expr)

The expr is evaluated and thrown, therefore expr must return a value that implements PHP's Throwable interface.

Try, Catch and Finally

(try expr* catch-clause* finally-clause?)

All expressions are evaluated and if no exception is thrown the value of the last expression is returned. If an exception occurs and a matching catch-clause is provided, its expression is evaluated and the value is returned. If no matching catch-clause can be found the exception is propagated out of the function. Before returning normally or abnormally the optionally finally-clause is evaluated.

(try) # evaluates to nil

(try
  (throw (php/new Exception))
  (catch Exception e "error")) # evaluates to "error"

(try
  (+ 1 1)
  (finally (print "test"))) # Evaluates to 2 and prints "test"

(try
  (throw (php/new Exception))
  (catch Exception e "error")
  (finally (print "test"))) # evaluates to "error" and prints "test"

Statements (do)

(do expr*)

Evaluates the expressions in order and returns the value of the last expression. If no expression is given, nil is returned.

(do 1 2 3 4) # Evaluates to 4
(do (print 1) (print 2) (print 3)) # Print 1, 2, and 3